What was Gorbachevs foreign policy towards the states of Central and Eastern Europe and how successfully were these achieved by 1989?

Guide to referencing and bibliographies

Two systems for referencing sources used in your essays, presentations and other written work are explained in this guide: the author, date system and the use of footnotes or endnotes. The Department of Central and East European Studies recognises both systems, but you should choose one and use it consistently in each piece of work. Whichever system you use, you should provide a reference immediately after any direct quote, paraphrasing of another authoras argument, reference to a published opinion or debate, or piece of data taken from a specific source. Please refer to your general course guides for further information on and sanctions for plagiarism.

The author, date referencing system

This system integrates a reference to the author and date of a source into the text, pointing to a full bibliography at the end of your work. It has the advantage that your reader does not have to keep looking to the bottom of the page, or the end of your essay to see what source you are referring to and it leaves footnotes/endnotes free for additional comments or pieces of information not directly relating to your argument.

This system always refers to the actual author of a chapter or article not to the editor of a published work and this is reflected in the bibliography, see below e.g. (Kiblitskaya 2000). If there a two references by the same author in the same year use: a, and b, to distinguish e.g. (Hill, 2000a). For works with two authors use both surnames e.g. (Yanowitz and Silverman, 1999), for those with three or more use (Bridger et al, 1996). Where you are citing a quote or a piece of data that is already a citation in the text you are reading you should reference it in your text as (Lenin 1977: 85, cited in Buckley 1989: 25), your bibliography then only need include the source you actually read, i.e. in this case Buckley.

In the overwhelming majority of cases this reference should provide a page number as well as author and date, unless the reference is to an argument running through the whole work referenced. Page numbers are given as part of the in-text reference and do not need to be included in the bibliography, except for newspaper/magazine articles.

Ibid. and op cit. Are not used in this system. Each time you refer to a work you should include a reference to the author, date and page, even if you have already made reference to the same work previously.

Web based references
If you are referring to a web based publication with a given author and title you should use these for your reference (Pilkington, 1999). If there is no author, title or date available, for example if it is a website from which you have gained statistical data for example give a shortened version of the site (

set all margins to at least 1 inch or 25mm.
use 1.5 or double-line spacing throughout
divide your text into paragraphs, with a blank line between each paragraph
use font size 11 or 12
add page numbers starting with 1 on the first page of the text (i.e. not the cover sheet)

Format of bibliography using the author/date system:

list in alphabetical order according to surname
if there is no named author, use the first letter of the first word of the title to place the source alphabetically in the bibliography
single spacing if an entry takes up more than one line
insert a line space between each entry
do not put page numbers in bibliographies unless putting in the span of a journal article
use a., b., etc. to differentiate between publications published in the same year by the same author

Browning, G. (1992) The zhensovety revisted, in M. Buckley (ed.) Perestroika and Soviet Women, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Carr, E. H. (1997) The Russian Revolution from Lenin to Stalin 1917-1929, London: Macmillan Press

Hill, D. (2000a) In search of New Dad, The Guardian, G2, 14 June

Hill, D. (2000b) Tummy Trouble, The Guardian, G2, 20 June

Jobbik (2009) EU election campaign, 21 May 2009, hungary/reasons-behind-the-resurgence-of-the-far-right-in-hungary-_307.html, consulted on 4.4.11

Marx K. and Engels, F. The Communist Manifesto (1992) Oxford: Oxford University Press

The Sunday Times, 27.3.2011

Volkov, V. (1999) Violent Entrepreneurship in Post-Communist Russia, Europe-Asia Studies, Volume 51, No. 5, July, 450-466