Yril HouleAdult Learners in Higher Education and Training Learning Theory Paper

Cyril Houle

Houle identified three motivational styles:
Goal-oriented learners: Use education to accomplish objectives.
Activity-oriented (social) learners: Take part because of social contact.
Learning-oriented learners: Seek knowledge for its own sake.


Houleas principles:
1. As certain things motivate, others discourage. Few things are more de-motivating than fear.
2. Recognizing our unique motivational styles can also help us identify the types of educational products and problems that will satisfy our needs.
3. Adult educational activities may provide for marked increases in racial, religious, and social tolerance.
4. The more education mature people have, the more likely they want more.
5. The need for counseling and guidance among adults is very great.
6. The more people know the availability of adult educational programs, the more likely they will participate.
Example: A teacher breaks down the learning process and makes it transparent; Learning becomes visible. The adults learn strategy and begin to develop the ability to use them on their own a to further their learning.